Article 5 - Security
1. General Security Provisions
(a) The Parties acknowledge that mutual understanding and co-operation in security-related matters will form a significant part of their bilateral relations and will further enhance regional security. Palestine and Israel shall base their security relations on cooperation, mutual trust, good neighborly relations, and the protection of their joint interests.
(b) Palestine and Israel each shall:
i. Recognize and respect the other's right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from the threat or acts of war, terrorism and violence;
ii. refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the other and shall settle all disputes between them by peaceful means;
iii. refrain from joining, assisting, promoting or co-operating with any coalition, organization or alliance of a military or security character, the objectives or activities of which include launching aggression or other acts of hostility against the other;
iv. refrain from organizing, encouraging, or allowing the formation of irregular forces or armed bands, including mercenaries and militias within their respective territory and prevent their establishment. In this respect, any existing irregular forces or armed bands shall be disbanded and prevented from reforming at any future date;
v. refrain from organizing, assisting, allowing, or participating in acts of violence in or against the other or acquiescing in activities directed toward the commission of such acts.
(c) To further security cooperation, the Parties shall establish a high level Joint Security Committee that shall meet on at least a monthly basis. The Joint Security Committee shall have a permanent joint office, and may establish such sub-committees as it deems necessary, including sub-committees to immediately resolve localized tensions.
2. Regional Security
i. Israel and Palestine shall work together with their neighbors and the international community to build a secure and stable Middle East, free from weapons of mass destruction, both conventional and non-conventional, in the context of a comprehensive, lasting, and stable peace, characterized by reconciliation, goodwill, and the renunciation of the use of force.
ii. To this end, the Parties shall work together to establish a regional security regime.
3. Defense Characteristics of the Palestinian State
(a) No armed forces, other than as specified in this Agreement, will be deployed or stationed in Palestine.
(b) Palestine shall be a non-militarized state, with a strong security force.
Accordingly, the limitations on the weapons that may be purchased, owned,
or used by the Palestinian Security Force (PSF) or manufactured in Palestine
shall be specified in Annex X. Any proposed changes to Annex X shall be considered
by a trilateral committee composed of the two Parties and the MF. If no agreement
is reached in the trilateral committee, the IVG may make its own recommendations.
i. No individuals or organizations in Palestine other than the PSF and the organs of the IVG, including the MF, may purchase, possess, carry or use weapons except as provided by law.
(c) The PSF shall:
i. Maintain border control;
ii. Maintain law-and-order and perform police functions;
iii. Perform intelligence and security functions;
iv. Prevent terrorism;
v. Conduct rescue and emergency missions; and
vi. Supplement essential community services when necessary.
(d) The MF shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause.
(a) The Parties reject and condemn terrorism and violence in all its forms and shall pursue public policies accordingly. In addition, the parties shall refrain from actions and policies that are liable to nurture extremism and create conditions conducive to terrorism on either side.
(b) The Parties shall take joint and, in their respective territories, unilateral comprehensive and continuous efforts against all aspects of violence and terrorism. These efforts shall include the prevention and preemption of such acts, and the prosecution of their perpetrators.
(c) To that end, the Parties shall maintain ongoing consultation, cooperation, and exchange of information between their respective security forces.
(d) A Trilateral Security Committee composed of the two Parties and the United States shall be formed to ensure the implementation of this Article. The Trilateral Security Committee shall develop comprehensive policies and guidelines to fight terrorism and violence.
(a) Without prejudice to freedom of expression and other internationally recognized human rights, Israel and Palestine shall promulgate laws to prevent incitement to irredentism, racism, terrorism and violence and vigorously enforce them.
(b) The IVG shall assist the Parties in establishing guidelines for the implementation of this clause, and shall monitor the Parties' adherence thereto.
6. Multinational Force
(a) A Multinational Force (MF) shall be established to provide security guarantees to the Parties, act as a deterrent, and oversee the implementation of the relevant provisions of this Agreement.
(b) The composition, structure and size of the MF are set forth in Annex X.
(c) To perform the functions specified in this Agreement, the MF shall be deployed in the state of Palestine. The MF shall enter into the appropriate Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the state of Palestine.
(d) In accordance with this Agreement, and as detailed in Annex X, the MF
i. In light of the non-militarized nature of the Palestinian state, protect the territorial integrity of the state of Palestine.
ii. Serve as a deterrent against external attacks that could threaten either of the Parties.
iii. Deploy observers to areas adjacent to the lines of the Israeli withdrawal during the phases of this withdrawal, in accordance with Annex X.
iv. Deploy observers to monitor the territorial and maritime borders of the state of Palestine, as specified in clause 5/13.
v. Perform the functions on the Palestinian international border crossings specified in clause 5/12.
vi. Perform the functions relating to the early warning stations as specified in clause 5/8.
vii. Perform the functions specified in clause 5/3.
viii. Perform the functions specified in clause 5/7.
ix. Perform the functions specified in Article 10.
x. Help in the enforcement of anti-terrorism measures.
xi. Help in the training of the PSF.
(e) In relation to the above, the MF shall report to and update the IVG in accordance with Annex X.
(f) The MF shall only be withdrawn or have its mandate changed by agreement of the Parties.
(a) Israel shall withdraw all its military and security personnel and equipment, including landmines, and all persons employed to support them, and all military installations from the territory of the state of Palestine, except as otherwise agreed in Annex X, in stages.
(b) The staged withdrawals shall commence immediately upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be made in accordance with the timetable and modalities set forth in Annex X.
(c) The stages shall be designed subject to the following principles:
i. The need to create immediate clear contiguity and facilitate the early implementation of Palestinian development plans.
ii. Israel's capacity to relocate, house and absorb settlers. While costs and inconveniences are inherent in such a process, these shall not be unduly disruptive.
iii. The need to construct and operationalize the border between the two states.
iv. The introduction and effective functioning of the MF, in particular on the eastern border of the state of Palestine.
(d) Accordingly, the withdrawal shall be implemented in the following stages:
i. The first stage shall include the areas of the state of Palestine, as defined in Map X, and shall be completed within 9 months.
ii. The second and third stages shall include the remainder of the territory of the state of Palestine and shall be completed within 21 months of the end of the first stage.
(e) Israel shall complete its withdrawal from the territory of the state of Palestine within 30 months of the entry into force of this Agreement, and in accordance with this Agreement.
(f) Israel will maintain a small military presence in the Jordan Valley under the authority of the MF and subject to the MF SOFA as detailed in Annex X for an additional 36 months. The stipulated period may be reviewed by the Parties in the event of relevant regional developments, and may be altered by the Parties' consent.
(g) In accordance with Annex X, the MF shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause.
8. Early Warning Stations
(a) Israel may maintain two EWS in the northern, and central West Bank at the locations set forth in Annex X.
(b) The EWS shall be staffed by the minimal required number of Israeli personnel and shall occupy the minimal amount of land necessary for their operation as set forth in Annex X.
(c) Access to the EWS will be guaranteed and escorted by the MF.
(d) Internal security of the EWS shall be the responsibility of Israel. The perimeter security of the EWS shall be the responsibility of the MF.
(e) The MF and the PSF shall maintain a liaison presence in the EWS. The MF shall monitor and verify that the EWS is being used for purposes recognized by this Agreement as detailed in Annex X.
(f) The arrangements set forth in this Article shall be subject to review in ten years, with any changes to be mutually agreed. Thereafter, there will be five-yearly reviews whereby the arrangements set forth in this Article may be extended by mutual consent.
(g) If at any point during the period specified above a regional security regime is established, then the IVG may request that the Parties review whether to continue or revise operational uses for the EWS in light of these developments. Any such change will require the mutual consent of the Parties.
(a) Civil Aviation
i. The Parties recognize as applicable to each other the rights, privileges and obligations provided for by the multilateral aviation agreements to which they are both party, particularly by the 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (The Chicago Convention) and the 1944 International Air Services Transit Agreement.
ii. In addition, the Parties shall, upon entry into force of this Agreement, establish a trilateral committee composed of the two Parties and the IVG to design the most efficient management system for civil aviation, including those relevant aspects of the air traffic control system. In the absence of consensus the IVG may make its own recommendations.
i. The Israeli Air Force shall be entitled to use the Palestinian sovereign airspace for training purposes in accordance with Annex X, which shall be based on rules pertaining to IAF use of Israeli airspace.
ii. The IVG shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause. Either Party may submit a complaint to the IVG whose decision shall be conclusive.
iii. The arrangements set forth in this clause shall be subject to review every ten years, and may be altered or terminated by the agreement of both Parties.
10. Electromagnetic Sphere
(a) Neither Party's use of the electromagnetic sphere may interfere with the other Party's use.
(b) Annex X shall detail arrangements relating to the use of the electromagnetic sphere.
(c) The IVG shall monitor and verify the implementation of this clause and Annex X.
(d) Any Party may submit a complaint to the IVG whose decision shall be conclusive.
11. Law Enforcement
The Israeli and Palestinian law enforcement agencies shall cooperate in combating illicit drug trafficking, illegal trafficking in archaeological artifacts and objects of arts, cross-border crime, including theft and fraud, organized crime, trafficking in women and minors, counterfeiting, pirate TV and radio stations, and other illegal activity.
12. International Border Crossings
(a) The following arrangements shall apply to borders crossing between the state of Palestine and Jordan, the state of Palestine and Egypt, as well as airport and seaport entry points to the state of Palestine.
(b) All border crossings shall be monitored by joint teams composed of members of the PSF and the MF. These teams shall prevent the entry into Palestine of any weapons, materials or equipment that are in contravention of the provisions of this Agreement.
(c) The MF representatives and the PSF will have, jointly and separately, the authority to block the entry into Palestine of any such items. If at any time a disagreement regarding the entrance of goods or materials arises between the PSF and the MF representatives, the PSF may bring the matter to the IVG, whose binding conclusions shall be rendered within 24 hours.
(d) This arrangement shall be reviewed by the IVG after 5 years to determine its continuation, modification or termination. Thereafter, the Palestinian party may request such a review on an annual basis.
(e) In passenger terminals, for thirty months, Israel may maintain an unseen presence in a designated on-site facility, to be staffed by members of the MF and Israelis, utilizing appropriate technology. The Israeli side may request that the MF-PSF conduct further inspections and take appropriate action.
(f) For the following two years, these arrangements will continue in a specially designated facility in Israel, utilizing appropriate technology. This shall not cause delays beyond the procedures outlined in this clause.
(g) In cargo terminals, for thirty months, Israel may maintain an unseen presence in a designated on-site facility, to be staffed by members of the MF and Israelis, utilizing appropriate technology. The Israeli side may request that the MF-PSF conduct further inspections and take appropriate action. If the Israeli side is not satisfied by the MF-PSF action, it may demand that the cargo be detained pending a decision by an MF inspector. The MF inspector's decision shall be binding and final, and shall be rendered within 12 hours of the Israeli complaint.
(h) For the following three years, these arrangements will continue from a specially designated facility in Israel, utilizing appropriate technology. This shall not cause delays beyond the timelines outlined in this clause.
(i) A high level trilateral committee composed of representatives of Palestine, Israel, and the IVG shall meet regularly to monitor the application of these procedures and correct any irregularities, and may be convened on request.
(j) The details of the above are set forth in Annex X.
13. Border Control
(a) The PSF shall maintain border control as detailed in Annex X.
(b) The MF shall monitor and verify the maintenance of border control by the PSF.
Rex Brynen * email@example.com * 17 May 1996